International Journal of Veterinary Papers <p><strong><strong>ISSN 2519-9218 (Online), ISSN 2519-920X (Print)</strong></strong></p> <p>International Journal of Veterinary Papers is an international peer reviewed open access journal. The aims of this journal are to improve and expand knowledge in all veterinary fields. The journal scope covers all clinical, medical, scientific and technological aspects of veterinary / medical research which include but not limited to: anatomy, biochemistry, biotechnology, clinical medicine and surgery, Theriogenology, physiology, pharmacology,&nbsp;pathology, microbiology and immunology, parasitology, epidemiology, breeding and genetic, feed and nutrition, wild life, animal products and their processing.&nbsp;Original research papers, review articles, extension articles,&nbsp;clinical articles and&nbsp;short communications&nbsp;on the production and diseases of animals, including studies in comparative medicine&nbsp;is published in this journal.</p> <p>The journal follows double blind peer review process. Manuscripts submitted by authors will be evaluated on Editorial Manager System by Editors &amp; reviewers of particular expertise in the same field to ensure that the published articles are of high quality with accurate and reliable information &amp; data, which reflect solid scholarship. Editors can manage the whole submission, review, revision and publishing process, however at least two independent reviewer's approval followed by the Editor is required for the acceptance of any citable manuscript.</p> <p><em><strong>Submission</strong></em></p> <p><strong>Authors can send their papers through online submissions or as an email attachment to:</strong> <a href=""></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="">Impact Factor=1.45</a></p> <p><strong>Indexed in:</strong></p> <p><strong>Index Copernicus,</strong></p> <p><strong>CiteFactor,</strong></p> <p><strong>J-Gate,</strong></p> <p><strong>Genamics JournalSeek, </strong></p> <p><strong>Scientific World Index, </strong></p> <p><strong>ResearchBib, </strong></p> <p><strong>Science Library Index, </strong></p> <p><strong>Academia , </strong></p> <p><strong>International Innovative Journal Impact Factor,</strong></p> <p><strong> <span class="tagline">Scientific Indexing Services (SIS database)</span>,</strong></p> <p><strong>Directory of Research Journals Indexing</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US International Journal of Veterinary Papers Contests of intestinal parasites and haemoparasite in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus): signal to some haematological parameters for optimum production along Lake Chad basin area of Nigeria <p>This study was designed to determine the prevalence of haemoparasite and gastro parasitic infection on apparently healthy African catfish (<em>Clarias gariepinus</em>) vended at custom market and Alau dam in Maiduguri metropolitan council between April and July, 2009. The fish sampled comprised of 32 males and 28 females. Haematological and coprological examinations revealed haemoparasite and gastrointestinal parasites respectively. Designated values of the haematological parameters were within the physiological range. Evaluation of haemoparasite revealed the highest prevalence in male and female catfish with 14(43.8 %) and 12 (42.5) of trypanosome respectively. Parasitic infection shows impact on male and female catfish body length (cm) and body weight (g) 12(37.5), 11(39.3) (cm) and 16(50.0), 9(32.1) (g) respectively. The least prevalence 3(9.4) were determine in Babesiosoma in male catfish while the least prevalence 5(17.9) in the female catfish were Haemogregarina and Babesiosoma. Gastrointestinal parasites of cestode, nematode and trematode were isolated from different organ locations with high prevalence 15(46.9) and 9(32.1) of nematode and cestode in male catfish and female catfish respectively. In conclusion, <em>Clarias gariepinus </em>sold at Custom and Lake Alau are distressed with several parasitic infection that are threat to supply of wholesome fish to the consumers as well as obstacle to obtain optimum African catfish (<em>Clarias gariepinus</em>)<strong> </strong>production.</p><p align="center"><strong><br /></strong></p> Abdullahi MA Iliyasu D Muhammed AY ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-02-23 2017-02-23 2 1 Assessment of Cytokines Associated with Infestation of Strongyles in Horses: A Review <p>Strongyles infestation is the most common and economically devastating disease of horses, where the migrating larvae of these parasite induce an elevated production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-5, IL-6 and TNF-α). Thus, the resultant inflammation causes increase production in the number of eosinophils and macrophages in the host. Advancement in the diagnostic techniques that are superior in sensitivity and dictation range than ELISA are the most commonly used method and has helped in overcoming the overwhelming challenges in controlling these parasites of economic significance in horses all over the world.</p><p><strong>Key Words:</strong> Diagnosis, Cytokines, <em>Strongyles,</em> Infestation, Horses,</p> Esther Solomon Mshelia Lawan Adamu Yakaka Wakil Usman Aliyu Turaki ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-04-02 2017-04-02 2 1 Appearance of Escherichia Coli no Spinach Collected from Some Local Markets in Zaria City: Public Health Consequences <p>The study was designed to determine the presence of E. coli 0157:H7 no spinach sold in five randomly selected markets in Zaria Local Government of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 250 samples of spinach were collected from the selected markets in the study area. Fifty (50) samples were collected from Sabon Gari, Palladan, Samaru, Hayin Dogo and PZ that constitute the study area. Isolates were screened using the conventional biochemical characterization for E. coli O157: H7. Twelve (12) gram of Spinach from each markets were washed with sterile distilled water separately. Five (5) mls of each washing was inoculated into 5 mls of double strength MacConkey broth and inoculated for 24 hours at 370C. A loop full of each positive result (lactose fermenters was sub cultured on EMB Agar and incubated for 24 h at 37 0C. positive results indicate (lactose fermenters) which produced a greenish metallic sheen of the surrounding medium. Lactose fermenters were picked and sub cultured on nutrient Agar slant and incubated for 24 h at 37 0C. These were stored in nutrient Agar slant at 4 0C until it was required for biochemical test. E. coli was confirmed by biochemical test and there growth on EMB Agar. Out of the 250 samples collected, Isolates screened using the conventional biochemical and growth on EMB Agar were 119 (47.6%) E. coli O157: H7 and 16 (6.4%) E. coli O157 respectively. Therefore, there is need for further research work to characterize the E. coli found on spinach in local markets around Zaria local government to defeat the spread of E. coli 0157:H7 infection among livestock and human for public health interest.</p> Karaye, G.P karaye, K. K. Iliyasu, D ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-14 2017-10-14 2 1 Prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Cattle in Borno State, Nigeria Based on Caudal Fold Intradermal Tuberculin Test <p><span class="fontstyle0">The study aimed to determine the prevalence of </span><span class="fontstyle2">Mycobacterium bovis </span><span class="fontstyle0">infection in cattle in Borno State of Nigeria based on caudal<br>fold intradermal tuberculin test. Tuberculin testing was conducted using purified protein derivative (PPD) obtained from Prionics<br>Lelystad, Netherlands to screen cattle for </span><span class="fontstyle2">M. bovis </span><span class="fontstyle0">infection. A total of 3290 cattle, consisting 1223 males and 2057 females were<br>tested. The overall positives out of 3290 cattle tested were Three Hundred and Forty-Eight (348) with a prevalence rate of 10.6%(<br>95%CI = 8.3-15.1). Based on sex 139 were males with a prevalence rate of (11.3%, 95%CI = 9.2-14.7) while 209 were females<br>with a prevalence rate of 10.2% (95%CI = 8.9-13.9). The chi-squire (x</span><span class="fontstyle0" style="font-size: 6pt;">2</span><span class="fontstyle0">) test of significance based on sex shows the difference was<br>not statistically significant at P&lt;0.05. This study has shown that the effect of age and body condition score of cattle tested on the<br>prevalence of </span><span class="fontstyle2">Mycobacterium bovis </span><span class="fontstyle0">infection as reflected by caudal fold intradermal tuberculin test is statistically significant<br>(P&lt;0.05). In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of </span><span class="fontstyle2">Mycobacterium bovis </span><span class="fontstyle0">infection and the public health implications<br>of bovine tuberculosis in the study area in particular. Control measures are also being suggested.<br></span><span class="fontstyle3">Key words: </span><span class="fontstyle2" style="font-size: 8pt;">Prevalence, Mycobacterium bovis, Intradermal tuberculin test, Borno State</span> </p> Abubakar U. B.1*, , Ibrahim S.1, Danbirni S.1, Muhammad H.3, Lawson L.4, Abdulrazaq G. H.3, Kwaga J.P.2, Abdulkadir I. A.1 ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-19 2018-08-19 2 1