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Background and Objectives: This study examined the bioactive ingredients and anti-bacterial activities of five medicinal plants – Alstonia boonei, Bridelia ferrugenea, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Terminalia schimperiana and Polyalthia longifolia – used traditionally in the study area. This study aimed at validating, scientifically, the ethnobotanical utilization of these species.
Methods: The leaves and stem barks of these plants were collected, dried made to powders. The powdered leaves and stems were extracted using aqueous and ethanol solvent. The extracts were used for the preliminary phytochemical screening and antimicrobial studies using standard methods.
Results: The plants were found to contain tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides and terpenoids. Extracts from these plants, at high concentration (100mg/ml), inhibited the growth of the bacteria studied. Salmonella typhi was the most resistance organism (at 100mg/ml) while Staphlococcus spp strains were the most sensitive organisms to both aqueous and ethanol extracts of all the plants at varying concentrations. The ethanol solvent extracted the phyto- chemicals in the plants better than water extract.
Conclusion: The results obtained in this study demonstrated the potencies of these species on the bacterial isolates of Staphlococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Salmonella typhi (at 50mg/ml and 100 mg/ml). Thus, confirming their suitability in the traditional treatments of diseases, such as dysentery, diarrhea, malaria and typhoid fever.
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