International Journal Of Biological Papers <p>ISSN: 2518-072X</p> <p>International Journal of biological papers publishes papers of high quality in any area of biology and biological sciences. Submission to the Journal is on the understanding that the article has not been previously published in any other form and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. <em>International Journal of biological papers </em>is an English language, peer-reviewed scholarly publication in the area of biological sciences. <em>International Journal of biological papers </em>publishes original papers, reviews and short communications on, but not limited to:<br> • Biology, Ecology and Ecosystems, Environmental and Biodiversity<br> • Conservation<br> • Microbiology<br> • Physiology<br> • Genetics and Epidemiology, And Related Fields</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em><strong>Submission</strong></em></p> <p><strong>Authors can send their papers through online submissions or as an email attachment to:</strong> <a href=""></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="">Impact Factor=1.44</a>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Indexed in</strong>:</p> <p><strong>Index Copernicus,</strong></p> <p><strong>Genamics JournalSeek,</strong></p> <p><strong> Scientific World Index,</strong></p> <p><strong> J-Gate, </strong></p> <p><strong>Citefactor, </strong></p> <p><strong><span class="tagline">Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research</span>, </strong></p> <p><strong>Science Library Index,</strong></p> <p><strong> JournalGuide Directory of Journals, </strong></p> <p><strong>Digital Headlines,</strong></p> <p><strong> biology journals list,</strong></p> <p><strong>ResearchBib,</strong></p> <p><strong><span class="tagline"> Scientific Indexing Services (SIS database), </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span class="tagline">International Innovative Journal Impact Factor, </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span class="tagline">International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE),</span></strong></p> en-US International Journal Of Biological Papers Ethno-Botanical Management of Malaria Disease by the Various Aboriginal Groups of Ondo State Nigeria <p><strong>Background and objective: </strong>Malaria is perhaps the major illness in Nigeria as the country accounts for an estimated 23% of cases worldwide. It is also the leading cause of child deaths in the country. The study being reported here aimed to document plant species used in the management of malaria disease by the various aboriginal groups in Ondo State, Nigeria.<strong></strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong>Methods: </strong>Three LGAs where each ethnic group dominated the population were selected, exemption being the Owo ethnic group, where two LGAs were used. In each of the selected LGA, five rural communities were selected. In each of these communities, 20 respondents who had maintained continuous domicile for a period of not less than 20 years were chosen and the selected respondents were interviewed using semi structured questionnaire matrix. Plants used for curing malaria were identified by the respondents; the local names of the plant and parts used as well as the time of usage, dosage, and administration were documented.</p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong>Results: </strong>The respondents in the study area were quite aware of the medicinal importance of plants in their environment and utilized them for the cure and/or protection from diverse diseases including malaria. A total of eight plant species were identified as being widely utilized in the state for the management of malaria disease. Only three of these species were cultivated in the study area. The utilization of the identified species varied among the tribal group. The details of their utility were defined.</p><p> </p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The plant derived medicine were acceptable and affordable. However, further studies are required on the identified species particularly on the need to determine the abundance of the identified plant species with the aim of identifying the rare ones and propose sustainable strategies that would ensure their availabilities to both the present and future generations in the study area. Also, scientific validation of the medicinal utilization of these species should be determined. All these will help in the effective control of malaria.</p> Adedayo Adewumi Joshua Kayode ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-02-18 2017-02-18 2 1 Axial and Radial Analyses of Selected Conductive and Storage Features in the Stem of Citrus aurantifolia Background and objectives: Citrus aurantifolia is used in daily consumption, in many cultural cuisines, in juice production and ethnomedicine. Selected conductive and storage features (i.e. vessels and rays) in the stem of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle were analyzed along the axial and radial axes of the stem.<br />Methods: The lengths, diameters and heights of the features were measured in micrometers (μm). Data were collected from 50 measurements and thereafter subjected to statistical analyses.<br />Results: The mean lengths (μm) and diameters (μm) of vessels in the stem were 112.75 ± 61.58, 172.21 ± 86.45, 142.99 ± 72.93 and 53.43 ± 23.07, 61.89 ± 19.40 and 58.48 ± 19.29 for the base, middle and top regions through the axial axis. These values were not significantly different from one another at P ≤ 0.05. The heights and widths (μm) of the rays were 234.83 ± 49.68, 260.92 ± 77.57, 250.65 ± 62.66 and 32.99 ± 6.61, 40.23 ± 11.83 and 36.19 ± 9.49 for the base, middle and top regions of the stem along the axial axis respectively. Consequently, there were significant differences at P ≤ 0.05 at one region and the other. Microscope observation of the features revealed numerous clusters of vessels occurring in triplets, doublets and multiple forms, storeyed rays, heterogeneous and homocellular rays. The present analyses placed the vessels in the stem of this species in the class of narrow and short vessels being less than 350μm.<br />Conclusion: It was asserted that this ‘built’ would confer some degree of competitive advantage on this species. Replication of the vessels and rays typical of Citrus aurantifolia was suggested to plant breeders and experts of crop improvements. Jonathan Eromosele Otoide Joshua Kayode ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-03-29 2017-03-29 2 1 Kinetic model for biodegradation of 2-chlorophenol by acclimated digester sludge in a biofilm reactor <p>A mathematical model was developed to describe the kinetics of biodegradation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) by acclimated digester sludge in the fixed-biofilm reactor using dewater sludge-fly ash composite ceramic particle (DFCCP) as a supporting medium. The model system incorporates the mechanisms of diffusive mass transport and Haldane kinetics. The model was solved using a combination of orthogonal collocation method and Gear's method. A laboratory-scale column reactor was conducted to verify the model system. Batch kinetic tests were conducted independently to determine the biokinetic parameters used in the model system. Experimental and model-predicted data for 2-CP effluent concentration, concentration of suspended biomass in effluent agree closely with each other. Under a steady-state condition, the removal efficiency of 2-CP was approximately 94.6%. The amount of biofilm and suspended biomass reached a maximal value in the steady state when the 2-CP flux reached a constant value and remained maximal. The experimental and modeling schemes proposed in this study could be employed to design a pilot-scale or full-scale anaerobic DFCCP fixed-biofilm reactor to treat chlorophenol-containing wastewater.</p> Yen-Hui Lin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-14 2017-10-14 2 1